Modern Greek History

About the London Conference of 1832

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The London Conference of 1832 was held in response to the Greek War of Independence. After Greece gained independence and instated a temporary government, the governor was assassinated. This caused the international community, namely Russia, Britain, and France,  to get involved. Ultimately, this is the conference that resulted in the founding of the Kingdom of Greece. Here’s more information about this:

Background of the London Conference

The Greek War of Independence took place from 1821 to 1829. This war made it possible for Greece to win its independence from the Ottoman Empire. Greece was helped during the war by three powers, Russia, Britain, and France. There was the London Protocol that took place on February 3, 1830. This is where the three powers determined the border of the new state.

Problems arose when John Capodistria, who was the governor of Greece, was assassinated in Nafplio in 1831. This caused the Greek peninsula to become overwhelmed with confusion. It was a time when the three powers wanted to work toward a formal end to the war of Greek independence. Their goal was to recognize a new Greek government.

Resistance to the New Government

During the conference, there was a refusal of Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to accept the Greek throne. The July Revolution in France, and the withdrawal of Leopold as a consideration for the Greek throne, delayed the final outcome of the settlement concerning the new Greek kingdom. It was also delayed as a result of the United Kingdom needing to form a new government.

About the London Conference

British Foreign Secretary Palmerstone convened with Russian and French diplomats during May 1832. There was no consultation with the Greeks before it was decided that Greece would be a monarchy. The Bavarian Prince Otto was offered the Greek throne. There was also a line of succession established. This determined the crown of the Greek monarchy would pass to Otto’s descendants or his younger brothers if Otto had no issue with this occurring.

The three powers also determined the crowns of Bavaria and Greece would not be combined under any circumstances. Since the three powers were co-guarantors of the Greek monarchy, they gave their ambassadors in the Ottoman capital of Constantinople the authority to finalize the terms ending the Greek War of Independence.

Establishing the Northern Frontier

A protocol signed during the conference that established the Arta-Volos line. It began at the west coast at the Gulf of Arta or Ambracia and stretched to the eastern area and the Gulf of Volos. This established the northern frontier of Greece. This decision was approved by Sir Stratford Canning, who was a British ambassador, as well as other conference representatives on July 21, 1832. Since the Ottoman Empire experienced a loss of territory, it was determined they would be indemnified with an amount equaling more than 39,000,000 piasters.

At the conclusion of the London Conference, Greece was established as an independent kingdom. Its northern border line was determined to be the Arta Volos Line. This move created the modern Greek state that was free from any influence by the Ottoman Empire.


Wikipedia – London Conference of 1832

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This post was written by Greek Boston

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